Current based PRELIMS QUESTION 4 August 2020

1. Consider the following statements with respect to the Indian Telegraph Act 1885.
1. The Centre is using powers under this Act to fetch information from telecom companies to track COVID19 cases across the country.
2. Illegally interception of phones and computers is punishable under sections 25 and 26 of this act that provide for imprisonment up to three years, with or without a fine.
3. Lawful interception of phones and computers can be done by the Central government only under Section 5(2) of the Indian Telegraph Act, 1885.
Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?
(a) 2 and 3 only
(b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
Answer-b
Explanation-
Indian Telegraph Act 1885
The Centre is using powers under the Indian Telegraph Act to “fetch information” from telecom companies every 15 minutes to track COVID19 cases across the country.
The States have been asked to seek the approval of their Home Secretaries under the provisions of Section 5(2) of the Indian Telegraph Act, 1885, for the specified mobile phone numbers to request the DoT to provide information by email or SMS in case of violation of “geo-fencing”.
Lawful interception of phones and computers can be done by the governments at the Centre and in the states under Section 5(2) of the Indian Telegraph Act, 1885.
If it is done illegally, it is punishable under sections 25 & 26 that provide for imprisonment up to three years, with or without a fine.
The Supreme Court laid down the following guidelines in this regard in the PUCL vs. Union of India case.
Section 5(2) of ITA, 1985 does not confer unguided and unbridled power on investigating agencies to invade a person’s privacy.
Tapping of telephones is prohibited without an authorising order from the Home Secretary of the Union government or of the state government concerned.
The order unless is valid for two months and if renewed, it cannot remain in operation beyond six months.
Phone tapping or interception of communications must be limited to the address specified in the order or to addresses likely to be used by a person specified in the order.
All copies of the intercepted material must be destroyed as soon as their retention is not necessary under Section 5(2).
There is no judicial or parliamentary oversight to review cases of lawful interception. However, the orders of the competent authority clearing lawful interception are reviewed by a review committee at both the central and state levels under Rule 419-A of the Indian Telegraph Rules, 1951.
The review committee investigates whether its passing is relevant within two months of an order.
Rule 419-A also provides for the procedure and precautions for handling lawful interception cases to ensure that unauthorised interception does not take place.
https://dot.gov.in/act-rules-content/2442

2. Consider the following statements with respect to the Aarogya Setu Application.
1. The app is built through public private partnership assesses them the risk for their catching the Corona Virus infection.
2. It will calculate this based on their interaction with others, using cutting edge Bluetooth technology, algorithms and artificial intelligence.
3. The app is available in 22 languages of 8th Schedule of the Constitution and has been launched on both Andriod and iOS platforms.
Which of the following statements is/are correct?
(a) 2 and 3 only
(b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
Answer-b
Explanation-
Aarogya Setu Application
The ministry of electronics and IT launched a mobile app on Thursday called Aarogya Setu which will help people in identifying the risk of getting affected by the Coronavirus.
The app built through public private partnership “assesses them the risk for their catching the Corona Virus infection.
It will calculate this based on their interaction with others, using cutting edge Bluetooth technology, algorithms and artificial intelligence.
Once installed in a smart phone, the app detects other nearby devices with Aarogya Setu installed. The app can then calculate the risk of infection based on sophisticated parameters if any of these contacts is tested positive.
The App will help the Government take necessary timely steps for assessing risk of spread of COVID-19 infection, and ensuring isolation where required.
The app is available in 11 languages and has been launched on both Andriod and ioS.

https://www.nic.in/whats-new/?newsid=2

3. Consider the following statements regarding the National Book Trust, India.
1. It is an apex body established by the Government of India in the year 1957.
2. It works under the Department of Culture, Ministry of Culture.
3. NBT is mandated to publish the classical literature of India.
Which of the following statements is/are correct?
(a) 2 and 3 only
(b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
Answer-c
Explanation-
National Book Trust, India
The National Book Trust (NBT), India is an apex body established by the Government of India (Department of Higher Education, Ministry of Human Resource Development) in the year 1957. The objectives of the NBT are to produce and encourage the production of good literature in English, Hindi and other Indian languages and to make such literature available at moderate prices to the public and to bring out book catalogues, arrange book fairs/exhibitions and seminars and take all necessary steps to make the people book minded.
PUBLISHING
In furtherance to the above objectives, NBT is mandated to publish
(a) The classical literature of India
(b) Outstanding works of Indian authors in Indian languages and their translation from one Indian language to another
(c) Translation of outstanding books from foreign languages and
(d) Outstanding books of modern knowledge for popular diffusion.
https://www.nbtindia.gov.in/aboutus__5__history.nbt

4. Consider the following statements regarding the 3-Dimensional (3-D) Printing Technology.
1. It is also known as Additive manufacturing which is a process of joining materials to make objects from 3D model data, usually layer upon layer.
2. It can be used to manufacture varied forms of products- from car or plane parts to sport goods, toys etc.
3. 3D printing starts by making a virtual design of the object to be created.
Which of the following statements is/are correct?
(a) 2 and 3 only
(b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
Answer-d
Explanation-
3-Dimensional (3-D) Printing Technology
Three-dimensional printing (3-D printing), also known as Additive manufacturing (AM) is a process of joining materials to make objects from 3D model data, usually layer upon layer.
It is basically a process of making three dimensional solid objects from a digital file.
The first working 3-D printer was created in 1984 by Charles W. Hull of 3-D Systems Corp. The machine was named Sterolithgraphy Apparatus
Evolution of 3D Printing:
Process of 3D Printing:
3D printing starts by making a virtual design of the object to be created. Virtual design can be made using a 3D modelling program such as CAD (Computer Aided Design) or 3D scanners.
The 3D digital copy is then put into a 3D modelling program. The model is then sliced into hundreds or thousands of horizontal layers in preparation for printing.
This prepared file is thus uploaded in the 3D printer which reads each slice in 2D format and then proceeds to create the object layer by layer and the resulting object has no sign of layering visible, but a 3 dimensional structure.
Advantages/ Benefits of 3D printing:
 Low cost
 Less Time
 Efficiency
 Increased Productivity
 Flexibility
 Customization
 Quality assurance
 Employment opportunities
 Reduced wastage
Disadvantages/ Issues with 3D Printing:
 Limited size
 Limited Raw Materials
 Effect on employment
 Concerns over copyright infringements
 Production of dangerous items
 Cyber security concerns
 Ethical concerns associated with use of 3D technology in healthcare
 Testing for safety and efficacy
Applications of 3D Printing:
1. Defence and Aerospace: At present, AM technology in the aerospace and defence sector is broadly used for prototyping, repair of small parts and component manufacturing.
2. Health:
Hearing aids have been made using 3D printing technology.
Bio printers: Organ printing or body part printing is being printed and some parts being used as implants of actual body parts.
Tissue engineering: Tissue engineering made remarkable progress with printing of 3D blood vessels. This was achieved 3D bio-printing technology and biomaterials through vascularisation of hydrogel constructs.
Dentistry: Dental Implants are being made on a commercial level using 3D printing technology
Prosthetics: 3D printing is being used to make surrogate body parts
Artificial organ: Additive manufacturing of stem cells has also led to various possibilities in printing artificial organs, although most of the work is still in the experimental stage
3. Manufacturing: 3D printing can be used to manufacture varied forms of products- from car or plane parts to sport goods, toys etc.
4. Domestic Usage: 3D printers can be used in the home to make small objects such as ornamental objects, small toys etc.
5. Architecture, housing: The technology can be used for a variety of housing projects with application in custom luxury designer homes, large scale development projects, to temporary housing projects. It could also enable engineers to design and build stiffer and safer geometries for houses. Further, can also help engineers to rebuild and restore old heritage designs quickly yet accurately.
6. Food: 3D printing enables fast automated and repeatable processes, freedom in design, as well as allowing large and easy variability of the cooking process which can be customized.
7. Education: Affordable 3D printers in schools may be used for a variety of applications which can aid students with learning better.
https://www.civilsdaily.com/burning-issue-3d-printing/
https://www.thehindu.com/news/cities/Kochi/navy-fabricates-3d-face-shields/article31241771.ece

5. Consider the following statements with reference to the Duckworth Lewis Stern (DLS) Method.
1. Tony Lewis and Frank Duckworth devised this method which was introduced in 1997 and adopted officially by the ICC in 1999.
2. This method is a mathematical formula used to calculate the target score for the team batting second in a limited overs cricket match interrupted by weather.
Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2
Answer-c
Explanation
Duckworth Lewis Stern (DLS) Method
Tony Lewis, alongside fellow mathematician Frank Duckworth, devised the Duckworth Lewis method which was introduced in 1997 and adopted officially by the ICC (International Cricket Council) in 1999.
Renamed the Duckworth Lewis Stern Method in 2014, the mathematical formula continues to be used in rain reduced limited over’s cricket games across the globe.
The Duckworth–Lewis (D/L) method is a mathematical formula used to calculate the target score for the team batting second in a limited overs cricket match interrupted by weather (e.g. Rain) or other circumstances.
Each team in a limited-overs match has two resources available with which to score runs (overs to play and wickets remaining). The target is revised proportionally in the combination of these two resources to set a statistically fair target for the second team’s innings, which is the same difficulty as the original target.
https://www.thehindu.com/sport/cricket/lewis-of-dls-method-fame-passes-away/article31241206.ece