Current based PRELIMS QUESTION 3 August 2020

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1. Consider the following statements with reference to the Athletics Integrity Unit (AIU).
1. It works fully independent of World Athletics, the international governing body for track and field athletics.
2. It is signatory to the World Anti-Doping Code to protect clean athletes by overseeing the international athletics anti-doping program.
3. It will pursue any actions that constitute bribery or corruption within the sport of athletics.
Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?
(a) 2 and 3 only
(b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
Answer-d
Explanation
Athletics Integrity Unit (AIU)
The AIU, the independent anti-doping watchdog for track and field set up in 2017, operates testing procedures in more than 100 countries.
The Athletics Integrity Unit works fully independent of World Athletics, the international governing body for track and field athletics, race walking, and road, cross country, mountain, and trail and ultra-running. The Athletics Integrity Unit Board has been delegated full authority to oversee the sport’s integrity issues.
The Board has a critical governance role rather than a management function, similar in style to that of a corporate board. It is responsible for approving and reviewing strategy, policies and plans for the Unit and for appointing and monitoring the performance of the Unit’s Head who is in charge of its day-to-day operations.
Supporting the Head of the Unit is a dedicated team of staff that delivers on the key activities: Testing, Compliance, Investigations, Intelligence, Case Management, Communications and Education.
Fulfilling World Athletics obligation as a Signatory to the World Anti-Doping Code, the Athletics Integrity Unit will protect clean athletes by overseeing the international athletics anti-doping program.
Improperly influencing the result, progress, outcome, conduct or any other aspect of an event or competition is a breach of the Athletics Integrity Unit rules.
The Athletics Integrity Unit will pursue any actions that constitute bribery or corruption within the sport of athletics.


It is not just athletes, but all those involved in the sport that is bound by the stringent betting regulations concerning athletics competitions and events.
A recent scourge of the sport, age manipulation is another part of the AIU’s broad mandate in pursuing a level playing field.
On 6 February 2017, the World Athletics Council chose to combat the creeping abuse of transfer of allegiance by freezing the process. With new rules and processes to be adopted by the Council, this area will be an increasingly important part of our remit.
https://www.athleticsintegrity.org/know-us

2. Consider the following statements regarding the Elements of Classical Yoga.
1. Maharshi Patanjali systematized and codified the then existing practices of Yoga, its meaning and its related knowledge.
2. Sage Patanjali’s treatise on raja yoga, the Yoga Sutras, says Yoga comprises of yama, niyama, asana, pranayam, pratyahara, dharana, dhyana and samadhi.
3. Raja Yoga may refer to one of the paths of Yoga amongst the 4 valid paths; the other 3 paths being Karma Yoga, Bhakti Yoga and Jnana Yoga.
Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?
(a) 2 and 3 only
(b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
Answer-d
Explanation
Elements of Classical Yoga
Patanjali’s eight-fold path offers guidelines for a meaningful and purposeful life. Delve into this prescription for moral and ethical conduct and self-discipline.
In Patanjali’s Yoga Sutra, the eightfold path is called ashtanga, which literally means “eight limbs” (ashta=eight, anga=limb).
These eight steps basically act as guidelines on how to live a meaningful and purposeful life. They serve as a prescription for moral and ethical conduct and self-discipline; they direct attention toward one’s health; and they help us to acknowledge the spiritual aspects of our nature.
1. Yama
The first limb, yama, deals with one’s ethical standards and sense of integrity, focusing on our behavior and how we conduct ourselves in life. Yamas are universal practices that relate best to what we know as the Golden Rule, “Do unto others as you would have them do unto you.”
The five yamas are:
Ahimsa: nonviolence
Satya: truthfulness
Asteya: nonstealing
Brahmacharya: continence
Aparigraha: noncovetousness
2. Niyama
Niyama, the second limb, has to do with self-discipline and spiritual observances. Regularly attending temple or church services, saying grace before meals, developing your own personal meditation practices, or making a habit of taking contemplative walks alone are all examples of niyamas in practice.
The five niyamas are:
Saucha: cleanliness
Samtosa: contentment
Tapas: heat; spiritual austerities
Svadhyaya: study of the sacred scriptures and of one’s self
Isvara pranidhana: surrender to God
3. Asana
Asanas, the postures practiced in yoga, comprise the third limb. In the yogic view, the body is a temple of spirit, the care of which is an important stage of our spiritual growth. Through the practice of asanas, we develop the habit of discipline and the ability to concentrate, both of which are necessary for meditation.
4. Pranayama
Generally translated as breath control, this fourth stage consists of techniques designed to gain mastery over the respiratory process while recognizing the connection between the breath, the mind, and the emotions. As implied by the literal translation of pranayama, “life force extension,” yogis believe that it not only rejuvenates the body but actually extends life itself. You can practice pranayama as an isolated technique (i.e., simply sitting and performing a number of breathing exercises), or integrate it into your daily hatha yoga routine.
These first four stages of Patanjali’s ashtanga yoga concentrate on refining our personalities, gaining mastery over the body, and developing an energetic awareness of ourselves, all of which prepares us for the second half of this journey, which deals with the senses, the mind, and attaining a higher state of consciousness.
5. Pratyahara
Pratyahara, the fifth limb, means withdrawal or sensory transcendence. It is during this stage that we make the conscious effort to draw our awareness away from the external world and outside stimuli. Keenly aware of, yet cultivating a detachment from, our senses, we direct our attention internally. The practice of pratyahara provides us with an opportunity to step back and take a look at ourselves. This withdrawal allows us to objectively observe our cravings: habits that are perhaps detrimental to our health and which likely interfere with our inner growth.
6. Dharana
As each stage prepares us for the next, the practice of pratyahara creates the setting for dharana, or concentration. Having relieved ourselves of outside distractions, we can now deal with the distractions of the mind itself. No easy task! In the practice of concentration, which precedes meditation, we learn how to slow down the thinking process by concentrating on a single mental object: a specific energetic center in the body, an image of a deity, or the silent repetition of a sound. We, of course, have already begun to develop our powers of concentration in the previous three stages of posture, breath control, and withdrawal of the senses. In asana and pranayama, although we pay attention to our actions, our attention travels. Our focus constantly shifts as we fine-tune the many nuances of any particular posture or breathing technique. In pratyahara we become self-observant; now, in dharana, we focus our attention on a single point. Extended periods of concentration naturally lead to meditation.
7. Dhyana
Meditation or contemplation, the seventh stage of ashtanga, is the uninterrupted flow of concentration. Although concentration (dharana) and meditation (dhyana) may appear to be one and the same, a fine line of distinction exists between these two stages. Where dharana practices one-pointed attention, dhyana is ultimately a state of being keenly aware without focus. At this stage, the mind has been quieted, and in the stillness it produces few or no thoughts at all. The strength and stamina it takes to reach this state of stillness is quite impressive. But don’t give up. While this may seem a difficult if not impossible task, remember that yoga is a process. Even though we may not attain the “picture perfect” pose, or the ideal state of consciousness, we benefit at every stage of our progress.
8. Samadhi
Patanjali describes this eighth and final stage of ashtanga, samadhi, as a state of ecstasy. At this stage, the meditator merges with his or her point of focus and transcends the Self altogether. The meditator comes to realize a profound connection to the divine, interconnectedness with all living things. With this realization comes the “peace that passeth all understanding”; the experience of bliss and being at one with the Universe. On the surface, this may seem to be a rather lofty, “holier than thou” kind of goal. However, if we pause to examine what we really want to get out of life, would not joy, fulfillment, and freedom somehow find their way onto our list of hopes, wishes, and desires? What Patanjali has described as the completion of the yogic path is what, deep down, all human beings aspire to: peace. We also might give some thought to the fact that this ultimate stage of yoga—enlightenment—can neither be bought nor possessed. It can only be experienced, the price of which is the continual devotion of the aspirant.
https://www.yogajournal.com/practice/the-eight-limbs

3. Consider the following statements regarding the National Cadet Corps (NCC).
1. A committee headed by Sri H.N. Kunzru recommended a cadet organization to be established in schools and colleges at a national level.
2. It was raised in July 1950 and could be considered as a successor of the University Officers Training Corps (UOTC).
3. It is headed by a Director General, an Army Officer of the rank of Lieutenant General.
Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?
(a) 2 and 3 only
(b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
Answer-c
Explanation
National Cadet Corps
The National Cadet Corps is the Indian military cadet corps with its head Quarters at New Delhi. It is open to school and college students on voluntary basis.
The National Cadet Corps in India is a voluntary organization which recruits cadets from high schools, colleges and Universities all over India. The Cadets are given basic military training in small arms and parades.
The officers and cadets have no liability for active military service once they complete their course but are given preference over normal candidates during selections based on the achievements in the corps.
Motto of NCC
Unity and Discipline (Ekta aur Anushasan)
Aims of NCC
1. To develop qualities of character, courage, comradeship, discipline, leadership, secular outlook, spirit of adventure and sportsmanship and the ideals of selfless service among the youth to make them useful citizen.
2. To create a human resource of organised trained and motivated youth to provide leadership in all walks of life including the Armed Forces and be always available for the service of the nation.
NCC History
The NCC in India was formed with the National Cadet Corps Act of 1948. It was raised on 15 July 1948 The National Cadet Corps can be considered as a successor of the University Officers Training Corps (UOTC) which was established by the British in 1942.
During World War II, the UOTC never came up to the expectations set by the British. This led to the idea that some better schemes should be formed, which could train more young men in a better way, even during peace times.
A committee headed by Pandit H.N. Kunzru recommended a cadet organization to be established in schools and colleges at a national level.
The National Cadet Corps Act was accepted by the Governor General and on 15 July 1948 the National Cadet Corps came into existence.
During the 1965 and 1971 wars with Pakistan, NCC cadets were the second line of defence. They organised camps to assist the ordinance factories, supplying arms and ammunition to the front, and also were used as patrol parties to capture the enemy paratroopers.
The NCC cadets also worked hand in hand with the Civil Defence authorities and actively took part in rescue work and traffic control.
After the 1965 and 1971 Indo-Pak wars the NCC syllabus was revised. Rather than just being the second line of defence, NCC syllabus laid a greater stress on developing qualities of leadership and Officer-like qualities.
The military training which the NCC cadets received was reduced and greater importance was given to other areas like social service and youth-management.
NCC Organisation
The National Cadet Corps is headed by a Director General, an Army Officer of the rank of Lieutenant General, who is responsible for the functioning of the National Cadet Corps in the country through the National Cadet Corps Headquarters situated at Delhi.
At the State Level, the country has been divided into 17 Directorates covering all States and Union Territories.
Each of the State National Cadet Corps Directorate Headquarters controls two to fourteen Group Headquarters.
While Directorates are commanded by Brigadiers or their equivalents, the Groups are commanded by Colonels or equivalents from the Air Force and the Navy, NCC Units are commanded by Major/Lieutenant Colonel or their equivalents.
http://www.psgtech.edu/ncc/02NccInfo.html

4. Consider the following statements with reference to the Immunisation Programme in India.
1. Immunization Programme in India was introduced in 1978 as Expanded Programme of Immunization (EPI) by the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India.
2. Universal Immunization Programme (UIP) was introduced in 1985 and to be implemented in phased manner to cover all districts in the country by 1989-90.
3. Under UIP, immunization is providing free of cost against 12 vaccine preventable diseases.
4. Mission Indradhanush (MI) was launched in 2014 and aims at increasing the full immunization coverage to children to 90%.
Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?
(a) 1, 2 and 4 only
(b) 2, 3 and 4 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) All of the above
Answer-d
Explanation-
Universal Immunisation Program
Immunization Programme in India was introduced in 1978 as ‘Expanded Programme of Immunization’ (EPI) by the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India.
In 1985, the programme was modified as ‘Universal Immunization Programme’ (UIP) to be implemented in phased manner to cover all districts in the country by 1989-90 with the one of largest health programme in the world.
In 1992, it became part of Child Survival and Safe Motherhood Programme and in 1997 it was included in the ambit of National Reproductive and Child Health Programme. Since the launch of National Rural Health Mission in 2005, Universal Immunization Programme has always been an integral part of it.
Universal Immunization Programme (UIP) is one of the largest public health programmes targeting close of 2.67 crore newborns and 2.9 crore pregnant women annually.
It is one of the most cost-effective public health interventions and largely responsible for reduction of vaccine preventable under-5 mortality rate.
Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India provides several vaccines to infants, children and pregnant women through the Universal Immunisation Programme.
Vaccines provided under UIP:
Under UIP, immunization is providing free of cost against 12 vaccine preventable diseases:
Nationally against 9 diseases – Diphtheria, Pertussis, Tetanus, Polio, Measles, Rubella, severe form of Childhood Tuberculosis, Hepatitis B and Meningitis & Pneumonia caused by Hemophilus Influenza type B
Sub-nationally against 3 diseases – Rotavirus diarrhoea, Pneumococcal Pneumonia and Japanese Encephalitis; of which Rotavirus vaccine and Pneumococcal Conjugate vaccine are in process of expansion while JE vaccine is provided only in endemic districts.
A child is said to be fully immunized if child receives all due vaccine as per national immunization schedule within 1st year age of child.
The two major milestones of UIP have been the elimination of polio in 2014 and maternal and neonatal tetanus elimination in 2015.
BCG
About-BCG stands for Bacillus Calmette-Guerin vaccine. It is given to infants to protect them from tubercular meningitis and disseminated TB.
When to give – BCG vaccine is given at birth or as early as possible till 1year of
Route and site- BCG is given as intradermal injection in left upper arm.
OPV
About-OPV stands for Oral Polio Vaccine. It protects children from poliomylitis.
When to give- OPV is given at birth called zero dose and three doses are given at 6, 10 and 14 weeks. A booster dose is given at 16-24 months of age.
Route and site – OPV is given orally in the form of two drops.
Hepatitis B vaccine
About – Hepatitis B vaccine protects from Hepatitis B virus infection.
When to give- Hepatitis B vaccine is given at birth or as early as possible within 24 hours. Subsequently 3 dose are given at 6, 10 and 14 weeks in combination with DPT and Hib in the form of pentavalent vaccine.
Route and site- Intramuscular injection is given at anterolateral side of mid thigh
Pentavalent Vaccine
About-Pentavalent vaccine is a combined vaccine to protect children from five diseases Diptheria, Tetanus, Pertusis, Haemophilis influenza type b infection and Hepatitis B.
When to give – Three doses are given at 6, 10 and 14 weeks of age (can be given till one year of age).
Route and site-Pentavalent vaccine is given intramuscularly on anterolateral side of mid thigh
Rotavirus Vaccine
About -RVV stands for Rotavirus vaccine. It gives protection to infants and children against rotavirus diarrhoea. It is given in select states.
When to give – Three doses of vaccine are given at 6, 10, 14 weeks of age.
Route and site-5 drops of vaccine are given orally.
PCV
About- PCV stands for Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine. It protects infants and young children against disease caused by the bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae. It is given in select states.
When to give – The vaccine is given as two primary doses at 6 & 14 weeks of age followed by a booster dose at 9 months of age
Route and site- PCV is given as intramuscular (IM) injection in outer right upper thigh. It should be noted that pentavalent vaccine and PCV are given as two separate injections into opposite thighs.
fIPV
About- fIPV stands for Fractional Inactivated Poliomylitis Vaccine. It is used to boost the protection against poliomylitis.
When to give- Two fractional doses of IVP are given intradermally at 6 and 14 weeks of age.
Route and site- It is given as intradermal injection at right upper arm.
Measles/ MR vaccine
About-Measles vaccine is used to protect children from measles. In few states Measles and Rubella a combined vaccine is given to protect from Measles and Rubella infection.
When to given- First dose of Measles or MR vaccine is given at 9 completed months’ to12 months (vaccine can be given up to 5 years if not given at 9-12 months age) and second dose is given at 16-24 months.
Route and site – Measles Vaccine is given as subcutaneous injection in right upper arm.
JE vaccine
About- JE stands for Japanese encephalitis vaccine. It gives protection against Japanese Encephalitis disease. JE vaccine is given in select districts endemic for JE.
When to given- JE vaccine is given in two doses first dose is given at 9 completed months-12 months of age and second dose at 16-24 months of age.
Route and site- It is given as subcutaneous injection.
DPT booster
About-DPT is a combined vaccine; it protects children from Diphtheria, Tetanus and Pertussis.
When to give -DPT vaccine is given at 16-24 months of age is called as DPT first booster and DPT 2nd booster is given at 5-6 years of age.
Route and site- DPT first booster is given as intramuscular injection in antero-lateral side of mid thigh in left leg. DPT second booster is given as intramuscular injection in left upper arm.
TT
About- Tetanus toxoid vaccine is used to provide protection against tetanus.
When to give- Tetanus toxoid vaccine is given at 10 years and 15 years of age when previous injections of pentavalent vaccine and DPT vaccine are given at scheduled age.
Pregnant women-TT-1 is given early in pregnancy; and TT-2 is given 4 weeks after TT-1.TT booster is given when two doses of TT are given in a pregnancy in last three years.
Route and site- TT is given as Intramuscular injection in upper arm.
https://nhm.gov.in/index1.php?lang=1&level=2&sublinkid=824&lid=220

5. Consider the following statements regarding the COVID19 Quarantine Alert System (CQAS).
1. The government has tested this application which triggers e-mails and SMS alerts to an authorised government agency if a person has jumped quarantine based on the person’s mobile phone’s cell tower location.
2. This collects phone data, including the device’s location, on a common secured platform and alerts the local agencies in case of a violation by COVID patients under watch or in isolation.
3. It is developed by the Department of Telecommunications DoT and the Centre for Development of Telematics (C-DOT).
Which of the following statements is/are correct?
(a) 2 and 3 only
(b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
Answer-d
Explanation-
COVID19 Quarantine Alert System (CQAS)
The Department of Telecommunications (DoT) has shared a standard operating procedure (SOP) with all telecom service providers regarding the application called COVID-19 Quarantine Alert System (CQAS).
The government has tested this application which triggers e-mails and SMS alerts to an authorised government agency if a person has jumped quarantine or escaped from isolation, based on the person’s mobile phone’s cell tower location.
It is developed by the Department of Telecommunications DoT and the Centre for Development of Telematics (C-DOT).
The CQAS will prepare a list of mobile numbers, segregating them on the basis of telecom service providers, and the location data provided by the companies will be run on the application to create geo-fencing.
The “geo-fencing” is accurate by up to 300 m.
What is Geo-fencing?
A geo-fence is a virtual perimeter for a real-world geographic area.
Geo-fencing is a location-based service in which an app or other software uses GPS, RFID, Wi-Fi or cellular data to trigger a pre-programmed action when a mobile device or RFID tag enters or exits a virtual boundary set up around a geographical location, known as a geo-fence.
https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/coronavirus-geo-fencing-app-will-be-used-to-locate-quarantine-violators/article31241055.ece