INDIA YEAR BOOK 2020 CHAPTER 4 Agriculture

1. Consider the following objectives:
1. To promote eco- friendly concept of cultivation reducing the dependency on agro-chemicals and fertilizers.
2. To optimally utilize the locally available natural resources for input production.
3. To promote the use of local indigenous traditional techniques for management of plant nutrition and plant protection.
Which of the above is/are objective of paramparagat krishi vikas Yojana?
(a) 1 only
(b) 1 and 3 only
(c) 1 and 2 only
(d) All of the above
1. Answer: d
The Parampragat Krishi Vikas Yojana (PKVY) is the first comprehensive scheme launched by the Central Government as a centrally sponsored programme (CSP), where the Central and state government’s share the funding in varying ratio. The scheme is implemented by the State Governments on a cluster basis of 20 hectares each. The farmer within the cluster is given financial assistance to a maximum of 1 ha and the limit of assistance is Rs.50,000 per ha during the conversion period of 3 years. The target is to promote 10,000 clusters covering 2 lakh ha over the period of 3 years, 2015-16 to 2017-18. Ministry of Agriculture invites citizens to use their creative skills and make posters that showcase the objectives of the PKVY scheme.

The objectives are listed below:
 To promote eco- friendly concept of cultivation reducing the dependency on agro-chemicals and fertilizers.
 To optimally utilize the locally available natural resources for input production.
 To promote the use of local indigenous traditional techniques for management of plant nutrition and plant protection.
 To develop 10,000 organic clusters of 50 acres each.
 To develop potential markets for organic products.

2. Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchayee Yojana is administered by:
1. Agriculture Ministry
2. Ministry of Water Resources, River Development and Ganga Rejuvenation
3. Rural Development Ministry
Select the correct answer using the code given below:
(a) 1 only
(b) 1 and 3 only
(c) 1 and 2 only
(d) All of the above

2.Answer: d
 The scheme has been approved with an outlay of Rs. 50,000 crore for a period of 5 years (2015-16 to 2019-20). The major objective of PMKSY is to achieve convergence of investments in irrigation at the field level, expand cultivable area under assured irrigation, improve on-farm water use efficiency to reduce wastage of water, enhance the adoption of precision irrigation and other water saving technologies (Per drop, More crop), promote sustainable water conservation practices etc. Cabinet decision was taken in July, 2016 for implementation of PMKSY in a mission mode. The mission is administered by Ministry of Water Resources, River Development and Ganga Rejuvenation with the Per Drop More Crop component being administered by Department of Agriculture, Cooperation and Farmers Welfare (DAC&FW)
 PMKSY has been conceived amalgamating ongoing schemes viz. Accelerated Irrigation Benefit Programme (AIBP) of the Ministry of Water Resources, River Development & Ganga Rejuvenation (MoWR,RD&GR), Integrated Watershed Management Programme (IWMP) of Department of Land Resources (DoLR) and the On Farm Water Management (OFWM) of Department of Agriculture and Cooperation (DAC). The scheme will be implemented by Ministries of Agriculture, Water Resources and Rural Development. Ministry of Rural Development is to mainly undertake rain water conservation, construction of farm pond, water harvesting structures, small check dams and contour bunding etc. MoWR, RD &GR, is to undertake various measures for creation of assured irrigation source, construction of diversion canals, field channels, water diversion/lift irrigation, including development of water distribution systems. Ministry of Agriculture will promote efficient water conveyance and precision water application devices like drips, sprinklers, pivots, rain-guns in the farm “(Jal Sinchan)”, construction of micro-irrigation structures to supplement source creation activities, extension activities for promotion of scientific moisture conservation and agronomic measures

3. For which of the following crops Minimum support price is announced:
1.Soyabean
2.Sunflower
3.Seasmum
4.Copra
5.Raw Jute
Select the correct answer using the code given below:
(a) 1, 4 and 5 only
(b) 2, 3 and 4 only
(c) 1, 2, 3 and 4only
(d) All of the above
3.Answer: d

Commission for ‘Agricultural Costs and Prices’ (CACP), set up with a view to evolve a balanced and integrated price structure, is mandated to advice on the price policy (MSP) of 23 crops. These include seven cereal crops (paddy, wheat, jowar, bajra, maize, ragi and barley), five pulse crops (gram, tur, moong, urad and lentil), seven oilseeds (groundnut, sunflower seed, soyabean, rapeseed mustard, safflower, niger seed and seasmum), copra (dried coconut), cotton, raw jute and sugarcane. CACP submits its recommendations in the form of Price Policy Reports every year, separately for five groups of commodities namely kharif crops, rabi crops, sugarcane, raw jute and copra.

4. Which of the following factors are taken into consideration while formulating MSP of a crop:
1. Cost of production
2. Demand and supply
3. Price trend in the domestic and international markets
4. Inter-crop price parity
5. likely impact of MSPs on consumers
Select the correct answer using the code given below:
(a) 1, 4 and 5 only
(b) 2, 3 and 4 only
(c) 1, 2, 3 and 4only
(d) All of the above
4.Answer: d

Cost of production (CoP) is one of the important factors in the determination of MSP of mandated crops. Besides cost, the Commission considers other important factors such as demand and supply, price trend in the domestic and international markets, inter-crop price parity, terms of trade between agricultural and non-agricultural sectors and the likely impact of MSPs on consumers, in addition to ensuring rational utilization of natural resources like land and water. Thus, pricing policy is rooted not in ‘cost plus’ approach, though cost is an important determinant of MSP.

5. Attracting and retaining youth in agriculture scheme is being implemented by:
(a) IARI
(b) ICAR
(c) Niti Ayog
(d) Directorate of Animal Husbandry
5.Answer: b

In India, new records are being established in the agriculture sector. India’s foodgrain production for the 2016-17 is estimated at record 275.68 million tonnes, which is over 4 per cent higher than the previous record production achieved during 2013-14. In this endeavour, the Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) has played a vital role by way of technology development, demonstration and transfer in India. The National Agricultural Research System (NARS) of the country has taken up number of activities through Krishi Vigyan Kendras (KVKs) and other programmes for application of farm technologies in farmers’field. Besides, taking up technology assessment, refinement, demonstration and capacity development programmes the other initiatives such as Farmers First, attracting and retaining youth in agriculture (ARYA), climate resilient integrated farming systems (IFS), cluster frontline demonstration (CFLD) of pulses and oilseeds, Cereal Systems Initiatives for South Asia (CSISA), documentation and registration of farmers’ varieties under PPV&FRA, pulses seed hubs, KVK Portal, Mera Gaon Mera Gaurav and awareness creations about mega government schemes, etc., were also implemented to espouse the cause of farming community through technology application with their active participation

6. National Livestock Mission was launched in which five year plan?
(a) XI FYP
(b) XII FYP
(c) IX FYP
(d) X FYP
6.Answer: b
For sustainable and continuous growth of livestock sector by emulating the success achieved in dairy and poultry sectors, across species and regions, the National Livestock Mission was launched in 2014-15 with an approved outlay of X 2,800 crore during XII Plan. This Mission is formulated with the objectives of sustainable development of livestock sector, focusing on improving availability of quality feed and fodder, risk coverage, effective extension, improved flow of credit and organisation of livestock farmers/rearers, etc. with the following sub-missions: (i) sub-mission on livestock development; (ii) sub-mission on pig development in north-eastern region; (iii) sub-mission on fodder and feed development; and (iv) sub-mission on skill development, technology transfer and extension

7. Consider the following statement:
1. The first livestock census was conducted during 1919-1920
2. Survey is conducted quinquennially by all states/UTs of the country
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2
7.Answer: c

The first livestock census was conducted during 1919-1920 and since then it is being conducted quinquennially by all states/UTs of the country. It is the only source, which gives disaggregated information on various species of farm animals and poultry birds. The 19th Livestock Census was conducted in 2012 in the country in participation with animal husbandry departments of the states/UTs. Breed Survey was also undertaken in 2013 in order to estimate the breed wise number of livestock population on a general principle of 15 per cent sample village across the country.

8. The proposal of Government of India for celebrating an International Year of Millets by UN was endorsed by FAO Council for which year:
(a) 2020
(b) 2027
(c) 2023
(d) 2028
8.Answer: c

9. What is/are the component of PM-AASHA?
1. Price Support Scheme (PSS),
2. Price Deficiency Payment Scheme (PDPS)
3. Pilot of Private Procurement & Stockist Scheme (PPPS).
Select the correct answer using the code given below:
(a) 1 only
(b) 1 and 3 only
(c) 1 and 2 only
(d) All of the above

9. Answer: d
The new Umbrella Scheme includes the mechanism of ensuring remunerative prices to the farmers and is comprised of
 Price Support Scheme (PSS),
 Price Deficiency Payment Scheme (PDPS)
 Pilot of Private Procurement & Stockist Scheme (PPPS).
The other existing schemes of Department of Food and Public Distribution (DFPD) for procurement of paddy, wheat and nutri-cereals/coarse grains and of Ministry of Textile for cotton and jute will be continued for providing MSP to farmers for these crops.
Cabinet has also decided that participation of private sector in procurement operation needs to piloted so that on the basis of learnings the ambit of private participation in procurement operations may be increased. Therefore, in addition to PDPS, it has been decided that for oilseeds, states have the option to roll out Private Procurement Stockist Scheme (PPSS) on pilot basis in selected district/APMC(s) of district involving the participation of private stockiest. The pilot district/selected APMC(s) of district will cover one or more crop of oilseeds for which MSP is notified. Since this is akin to PSS, in that it involves physical procurement of the notified commodity, it shall substitute PSS/PDPS in the pilot districts.
The selected private agency shall procure the commodity at MSP in the notified markets during the notified period from the registered farmers in consonance with the PPSS Guidelines, whenever the prices in the market fall below the notified MSP and whenever authorized by the state/UT government to enter the market and maximum service charges up to 15% of the notified MSP will be payable.
Expenditure:
 The Cabinet has decided to give additional government guarantee of Rs.16,550 crore making it Rs. 45,550 crore in total.
 In addition to this, budget provision for procurement operations has also been increased and Rs. 15,053 crore is sanctioned for PM-AASHA implementation. The scheme henceforth is a reflection of Government’s commitment and dedication to our ‘Annadata’.
Procurement over the years:
 During financial years 2010-14 total procurement was Rs. 3500 crore only whereas during financial years 2014-18, it has risen 10 times and reached to Rs. 34,000 crore. For procurement of these agri-commodities during 2010-14, Government Guarantee of Rs. 2500 crore was provided with expenditure of only Rs. 300 crore; while during 2014-18, Guarantee amount has been increased to Rs. 29,000 crore with expenditure of Rs. 1,000 crore.
Details:
• Government of India is working with the holistic approach of solving any issue rather than in fragments. Increasing MSP is not adequate and it is more important that farmers should get full benefit of the announced MSP. For this, government realizes that it is essential that if price of the agriculture produce market is less than MSP, then in that case State Government and Central Government should purchase either at MSP or work in a manner to provide MSP for the farmers through some other mechanism. With this approach, Cabinet has approved the Umbrella Scheme of PM-AASHA with three sub-schemes i.e. Price Support Scheme (PSS), Price Deficiency Payment Scheme (PDPS) and pilot of Private Procurement & Stockist Scheme (PDPS).
• In Price Support Scheme (PSS), physical procurement of pulses, oilseeds and Copra will be done by Central Nodal Agencies with proactive role of State governments. It is also decided that in addition to NAFED, Food Cooperation of India (FCI) will take up PSS operations in states /districts. The procurement expenditure and losses due to procurement will be borne by Central Government as per norms.
• Under Price Deficiency Payment Scheme this scheme (PDPS), it is proposed to cover all oilseeds for which MSP is notified. In this direct payment of the difference between the MSP and the selling/modal price will be made to pre-registered farmers selling his produce in the notified market yard through a transparent auction process. All payment will be done directly into registered bank account of the farmer. This scheme does not involve any physical procurement of crops as farmers are paid the difference between the MSP price and Sale/modal price on disposal in notified market. The support of central government for PDPS will be given as per norms.

10. Consider the following statement(s) w.r.to Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchayee Yojana:
1. The major objective of PMKSY is to achieve convergence of investments in irrigation at the field level, expand cultivable area under assured irrigation, improve on-farm water use efficiency to reduce wastage of water, enhance the adoption of precision irrigation and other water saving technologies
2. The mission is administered by Ministry of Water Resources, River Development and Ganga Rejuvenation with the Per Drop More Crop component being administered by Department of Agriculture, Cooperation and Farmers Welfare.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2
10.c
The scheme has been approved with an outlay of ₹ 50,000 crore for a period
of 5 years (2015-16 to 2019-20). The major objective of PMKSY is to achieve
convergence of investments in irrigation at the field level, expand cultivable area
under assured irrigation, improve on-farm water use efficiency to reduce wastage of water, enhance the adoption of precision irrigation and other water saving technologies (Per drop, More crop), promote sustainable water conservation practices etc. Cabinet decision was taken in July, 2016 for implementation of PMKSY in a mission mode. The mission is administered by Ministry of Water Resources, River Development and Ganga Rejuvenation with the Per Drop More Crop component being administered by Department of Agriculture, Cooperation and Farmers Welfare (DAC&FW).

11. Which of the following factor(s) is/are taken into consideration for calculating MSP:
1. Cost of production
2. Price trend in the domestic and international markets
3. Inter-crop price parity
Code:
(a) 1 only
(b) 1 and 3 only
(c) 1 and 2 only
(d) All of the above
11. d
Cost of production (CoP) is one of the important factors in the determination of MSP of mandated crops. Besides cost, the Commission considers other important factors such as demand and supply, price trend in the domestic and international markets, inter-crop price parity, terms of trade between agricultural and nonagricultural sectors and the likely impact of MSPs on consumers, in addition to ensuring rational utilization of natural resources like land and water. Thus, pricing policy is rooted not in ‘cost plus’ approach, though cost is an important determinant of MSP.

12. Consider the following:
1. It was launched in 2017-18
2. Mission is formulated with the objectives of sustainable development of livestock sector, focusing on improving availability of quality feed and fodder, risk coverage, effective extension, improved flow of credit and organisation of livestock
Which of the above is/are true w.r.to National Livestock mission?

(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2
12.B
For sustainable and continuous growth of livestock sector by emulating the success achieved in dairy and poultry sectors, across species and regions, the National Livestock Mission was launched in 2014-15 with an approved outlay of ₹ 2,800 crore during XII Plan. This Mission is formulated with the objectives of sustainable development of livestock sector, focusing on improving availability of quality feed and fodder, risk coverage, effective extension, improved flow of credit and organisation of livestock farmers/rearers, etc. with the following sub- missions: (i) sub-mission on livestock development; (ii) sub-mission on pig development in north-eastern region; (iii) sub-mission on fodder and feed development; and (iv) sub-mission on skill development, technology transfer and extension.

13. Consider the following:
1. The first livestock census was conducted during 1919-1920 and since then it is being conducted quinquennially
2. According to 20th Livestock census conducted in 2016 the livestock population in the country has increased by 4.6 per cent
Which of the above is/are true w.r.to National Livestock mission?

(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2
13. A
 The first livestock census was conducted during 1919-1920 and since then it is being conducted quinquennially by all states/UTs of the country.
 It is the only source, which gives disaggregated information on various species of farm animals and poultry birds. The 20th Livestock Census was conducted in 2019 in the country in participation with animal husbandry departments of the states/UTs. It indicates that the livestock population in the country increased by 4.6 per cent to 536 million from 512.06 million in 2012.