INDIA YEAR BOOK 2020 CHAPTER 1 Land and the People

CHAPTER 1 Land and the People

VIDEO DISCUSSION

 

1 Consider the following pairs:

Passes            State

  1. Jelep La Sikkim
  2. Shipki La Himachal
  3. Nathu La Uttarakhand

Which of above pair is/are correctly matched?

(a) 1 only

(b)  1 and 2 only

(c) 1 and 3 only

(d)  2 and 3 only

  1. Answer: B

The high altitudes allow travel only through a few passes, notably the Jelep La and Nathu La (Sikkim) on the main Indo-Tibet trade route through the Chumbi valley, north-east of Darjeeling and Shipki La in the Satluj valley, north-east of Kalpa (Kinnaur).

  1. Eastern and the Western Ghats meets at:

(a) Nilgiri

(b) Cardamom

(c) Palini Hills

(d) Nalkonda

 

  1. Answer: A
  • The southern point of the plateau is

Formed by the Nilgiri Hills where the Eastern and the Western Ghats meet.

 

  1. 3. Consider the following statements:
  2. Himalaya was under marine conditions about 60 crore years ago
  3. Peninsula is a region of relative stability with no seismic disturbances.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 only

(c) Both 1 and 2

(d) Neither 1 nor 2

3.Answer: A

  • The Himalayan mountain belt to the north and the Naga-Lushai mountain in the east, are the regions of mountain-building movement. Most of this area, now presenting some of the most magnificent mountain scenery in the world, was under marine conditions about 60 crore years ago. In a series of mountain-building movements commencing about seven crore years ago, the sediments and the basement rocks rose to great heights.
  • The Peninsula is a region of relative stability and occasional seismic disturbances. Highly metamorphosed rocks of the earliest periods, dating back as far as 380 crore years, occur in this area; the rest being covered by the Gondwana formations, lava flows belonging to the Deccan Trap formation and younger sediments

 

  1. Consider the following statements:
  2. The Himalayan Rivers are formed by melting snow and glaciers and therefore, continuously flow throughout the year.
  3. Coastal streams on the west coast are short in length and have large catchment areas.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 only

(c) Both 1 and 2

(d) Neither 1 nor 2

4.Answer: A

 

The river systems of India can be classified into four groups viz., (i) Himalayan rivers, (ii) Deccan rivers, (iii) Coastal rivers and (iv) Rivers of the inland drainage basin. The Himalayan rivers are formed by melting snow and glaciers and therefore, continuously flow throughout the year. During the monsoon months, Himalayas receive very heavy rainfall and rivers swell, causing frequent floods.

The Deccan Rivers on the other hand are rain fed and therefore fluctuate in volume. Many of these are non-perennial. The Coastal streams, especially on the west coast are short in length and have limited catchment areas. Most of them are non-perennial. The streams of inland drainage basin of western Rajasthan are few and far apart. Most of them are of an ephemeral character.

 

  1. Bhagirathi and the Alaknanda meet at:

(a) Vishnu Prayag

(b) karna Prayag

(c) Rudra Prayag

(d) Dev Prayag

 

Answer: d

The Ganga-BrahmaputraMeghna is another important system of which the principal sub-basins are those of Bhagirathi and the Alaknanda, which join at Dev Prayag to form the Ganga.

 

  1. Consider the following rivers:
  2. Yamuna,
  3. Ramganga,
  4. Mahananda

Which of the above rivers are the tributaries of the Ganga.

Select the correct option from code given below:

(a) 1 and 2 only

(b) 1 and 3 only

(c) 1 only

(d) All of the above

 

Answer: d

The Yamuna, the Ramganga, the Ghaghra, the Gandak, the Kosi, the Mahananda and the Sone are the important tributaries of the Ganga. Rivers Chambal and Betwa are the important subtributaries, which join the Yamuna before it meets the Ganga. The Padma and the Brahmaputra join at Bangladesh and continue to flow as the Padma or Ganga.

 

 

  1. Which river is known as Tsangpo before it enters India?

(a) Indus

(b) Sutlej

(c) Brahmaputra

(d) Teesta

 

  1. Answer: c

 

The Brahmaputra rises in Tibet, where it is known as Tsangpo and runs a long distance till it crosses over into India in Arunachal Pradesh under the name of Dihang. Near Passighat, the Debang and Lohit join the river Brahmaputra and the combined river runs all along the Assam valley. It crosses into Bangladesh downstream of Dhubri

 

  1. Consider the following rivers:
  2. Subansiri
  3. Jia Bhareli
  4. Dhansiri
  5. Puthimari
  6. Pagladiya
  7. Manas

 

Which of the above are tributaries of Brahmaputra?

(a) 1, 3 and 5 only

(b) 1, 3,4,5 and 6 only

(c) 1,2, 4, 5 and 6 only

(d) All of the above

Answer: d

The principal tributaries of Brahmaputra in India are the Subansiri, Jia Bhareli, Dhansiri, Puthimari, Pagladiya and the Manas. The Brahmaputra in Bangladesh fed by Teesta, etc. finally falls into the Ganga.

Refer: https://www.downtoearth.org.in/news/water/water-diplomacy-with-neighbours-india-expected-to-be-cautious-55826

 

  1. Barak river rises in the state of:

(a) Manipur

(b) Mizoram

(c) Assam

(d) Bangladesh

  1. Answer: a

The Barak river, the head stream of Meghna, rises in the hills in Manipur. The important tributaries of the river are Makku, Trang, Tuivai, Jiri, Sonai, Rukni, Katakhal, Dhaleswari, Langachini, Maduva and Jatinga. Barak continues in Bangladesh till the combined Ganga-Brahmaputra join it near Bhairab Bazar

 

  1. Which of the following rivers don’t drain into the sea?
  2. Luni
  3. Machhu
  4. Rupen
  5. Ghaggar

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

(a) 1, 2 and 3 only

(b) 1, 2 and 4 only

(d) 1 and 4 only

(d) All of the above

  1. Answer: d

A few rivers in Rajasthan do not drain into the sea. They drain into salt lakes and get lost in sand with no outlet to sea. Besides these, there are the desert rivers which flow for some distance and are lost in the desert. These are Luni, Machhu, Rupen, Saraswati, Banas, Ghaggar and others.

 

  1. Which of the states in India has highest population density according to the 2011 census?

(a) West Bengal

(b) Bihar

(c) Assam

(d) Kerala

  1. Answer: b

The density of population increased in all states and union territories between 1991 and 2011. Among major states, Bihar is the most thickly populated state with (a population density of) 1,106 persons per sq. km followed by West Bengal 1,028 and Kerala 860

 

  1. Consider the following statement:
  2. The sex ratio in the India has always remained unfavorable to females.
  3. Pondicherry and Kerala are the states where the number of women is more than the number of men.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 only

(c) Both 1 and 2

(d) Neither 1 nor 2

  1. Answer: c
  • Sex ratio, defined as the number of females per thousand males is an important social indicator to measure the extent of prevailing equality between males and females in a society at a given point of time.
  • The sex ratio in the country has always remained unfavourable to females. It was 972 at the beginning of the twentieth century and thereafter showed continuous decline until 1941. The sex ratio from 1901-2011 has registered a 10 point increase at census 2011 over 2001
  • There are also states such as Puducherry and Kerala where the number of women is more than the number of men. Kerala houses a number of 1084 females to that of 1000 males. While Puducherry and Kerala are the only two states where the number of female is more than the number of men, there are also states in India like that of Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Maharashtra where the sex ratio 2011 is showing considerable signs of improvement. Some facts related to the Sex Ratio in India follows, the main cause of the decline of the sex ration in India is due to the biased attitude which is meted out to the women. The main cause of this gender bias is inadequate education. Pondicherry and Kerala houses the maximum number of female while the regions of Daman and Diu and Haryana have the lowest density of female population. 

 

  1. Consider the following statements:
  2. For the purpose of census 2011, a person aged seven and above, who can both read and write with understanding in any language, is treated as literate.
  3. Kerala occupies the top spot in the country both in male literacy and female literacy

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 only

(c) Both 1 and 2

(d) Neither 1 nor 2

 

  1. Answer: c

Kerala retained its position by being on top with a 94 per cent literacy rate, closely followed by Lakshadweep (91.9 per cent). Bihar with a literacy rate of 61.8 per cent ranks last in the country. Kerala also occupies the top spot in the country both in male literacy with 96.1 per cent and female literacy with 92.1 per cent. On the contrary, Bihar has recorded the lowest literacy rates both in case of males (71.2 per cent) and females (51.5 per cent).

 

  1. Consider the following statements:
  2. Between India and Myanmar and India and Bangladesh, hill ranges are much lower.
  3. Andman & Nicobar, Garo, Khasi , Jaintia and Naga Hills are extension of Himalayas

Which of above pair is/are correctly matched?

(a) 1 only

(b)  1 and 2 only

(c) 1 and 3 only

(d)  2 and 3 only

14.A

 

Himalayan mountain wall extends over a distance of about 2,400 km with a varying depth of 240 to 320 km. In the east, between India and Myanmar and India and Bangladesh, hill ranges are much lower. Garo, Khasi, Jaintia and Naga Hills, running almost east-west, join the chain to Mizo and Rakhine Hills running north-south.

 

  1. Consider the following statement(s):
  2. Cardamom Hills lying beyond Nilgiri may be regarded as a continuation of the Western Ghats
  3. Indian Peninsula is flanked on the one side by the Eastern Ghats where average elevation is about 6100 metres and on the other by the Western Ghats where it is generally from 9150 to 1,2200 metres.

 

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 only

(c) Both 1 and 2

(d) Neither 1 nor 2

15.A

 

The Peninsular Plateau is marked off from the plains of the Ganga and the Indus by a mass of mountain and hill ranges varying from 460 to 1,220 metres in height. Prominent among these are the Aravali, Vindhya, Satpura, Maikala and Ajanta. The Peninsula is flanked on the one side by the Eastern Ghats where average elevation is about 610 metres and on the other by the Western Ghats where it is generally from 915 to 1,220 metres, rising in places to over 2,440 metres. Between the Western Ghats and the Arabian Sea lies a narrow coastal strip, while between Eastern Ghats and the Bay of Bengal, there is a broader coastal area. The southern point of the plateau is formed by the Nilgiri Hills where the Eastern and the Western Ghats meet. The Cardamom Hills lying beyond may be regarded as a continuation of the Western Ghats.

 

  1. Which of the following is/are Major river basins of India?
  2. Krishna
  3. Sabarmati
  4. Tapti

Code:

(a) 1 only

(b)  1 and 2 only

(c) 1 and 3 only

(d)  1,2, 3

 

16.d

  • The entire country has been divided into 20 river basins/group of river basins comprising 12 major basins and eight composite river basins. The 12 major river basins are : (1) Indus, (2) Ganga-Brahmaputra-Meghna, (3) Godavari, (4) Krishna, (5) Cauvery, (6) Mahanadi, (7) Pennar, (8) Brahmani-Baitarani, (9) Sabarmati, (10) Mahi, (11) Narmada and (12) Tapti. Each of these basins has a drainage area exceeding 20,000 sq. km.
  • The eight composite river basins combining suitably together all the other remaining medium (drainage area of 2,000 to 20,000 sq. km) and small river systems (drainage area less than 2000 sq. km) for the purpose of planning and management are : (1) Subarnarekha—combining Subarnarekha and other small rivers between Subarnarekha and Baitarani; (2) east flowing rivers between Mahanadi and Pennar; (3) east flowing rivers between Pennar and Kanyakumari; (4) area of Inland drainage in Rajasthan desert; (5) west flowing rivers of Kutch and Saurashtra including Luni; (6) west flowing rivers from Tapi to Tadri; (7) west flowing rivers from Tadri to Kanyakumari and (8) minor rivers draining into Myanmar (Burma) and Bangladesh.

 

  1. Consider the following statements w.r.to Indian Flora:
  2. India can be divided into eight distinct floristic regions.

 

  1. Available data place India in the fourth position in the world and tenth in Asia in plant diversity.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 only

(c) Both 1 and 2

(d) Neither 1 nor 2

17.A

  • Second wrong from Common sense
  • With a wide range of climatic conditions from the torrid to the arctic, India has a rich and varied vegetation, which only a few countries of comparable size possess. India can be divided into eight distinct floristic regions, namely, the western Himalayas, the eastern Himalayas, Assam, the Indus plain, the Ganga plain, the Deccan, the Malabar and the Andamans.

 

  1. Which of the following tree species(s) is/are found in Himalayas:
  2. Blue pine
  3. Junipers
  4. Laurel
  5. Red Sandalwood

Code:

  • 1,2 and 5 only
  • 2,3,4, and 5 only
  • 1,2,3 and 4
  • All of the above

18.c

 

  • The western Himalayan region extends from Kashmir to Kumaon. Its temperate zone is rich in forests of chir, pine, other conifers and broad-leaved temperate trees. Higher up, forests of deodar, blue pine, spruce and silver fir occur.
  • The alpine zone extends from the upper limit of the temperate zone of about 4,750 metres or even higher. The characteristic trees of this zone are high- level silver fir, silver birch and junipers.
  • The eastern Himalayan region extends from Sikkim eastwards and embraces Darjeeling, Kurseong and the adjacent tracts. The temperate zone has forests of oaks, laurels, maples, rhododendrons, alder and birch. Many conifers, junipers and dwarf willows also grow here.
  • Red Sandalwood in Dry Deciduous forest of peninsula

 

  1. Consider the following statement(s):

 

  1. In Brahmaputra and the Surma valleys evergreen forests, occasional thick clumps of bamboos and tall grasses and Xerophytes vegetation is there.

 

  1. Ganga plain region is alluvial plain and is under cultivation for wheat, sugarcane and rice and only small areas support forests of widely differing types.

 

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 only

(c) Both 1 and 2

(d) Neither 1 nor 2

19.B

 

  • The Assam region comprises the Brahmaputra and the Surma valleys with evergreen forests, occasional thick clumps of bamboos and tall grasses.
  • The Indus plain region comprises the plains of Punjab, western Rajasthan and northern Gujarat. It is dry, hot and supports natural vegetation. (Xerophytes)
  • The Ganga plain region covers the area which is alluvial plain and is under cultivation for wheat, sugarcane and rice. Only small areas support forests of widely differing types.
  • The Deccan region comprises the entire table land of the Indian Peninsula and supports vegetation of various kinds from shrub jungles to mixed deciduous forests.
  • The Malabar region covers the excessively humid belt of mountain country parallel to the west coast of the Peninsula. Besides being rich in forest vegetation, this region produces important commercial crops, such as coconut, betelnut, pepper, coffee, tea, rubber and cashewnut.
  • The Andaman region abounds in evergreen, mangrove, beach and diluvial forests. The Himalayan region extending from Kashmir to Arunachal Pradesh through Sikkim, Meghalaya and Nagaland and the Deccan Peninsula is rich in endemic flora, with a large number of plants which are not found elsewhere.

 

  1. Consider the following statement(s):

 

  1. Census 2011 was the 16th census of its kind since 1872.

 

  1. Census reveals benchmark data on the state of abundant human resources available in the country, their demography, culture and economic structure at a juncture.

 

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 only

(c) Both 1 and 2

(d) Neither 1 nor 2

 

  1. B
  • Census 2011 was the 15th census of its kind since 1872. It was held in two phases: House listing and Housing Census (April to September, 2010) and Population Enumeration (February 9 to 28, 2011 with Revisional round during 1st to 5th March, 2011). Reference Date was 0.00 hour of March 1, 2011. In snow bound areas, the Population Enumeration was conducted from September 11 to 30, 2010. The Final Population data was released on April 30, 2013.
  • The Census of India 2001, was historic and epoch making, being the first census of the twenty-first century and the third millennium. It reveals benchmark data on the state of abundant human resources available in the country, their demography, culture and economic structure at a juncture, which marks a centennial and millenial transition.